First Steps | Handling | Data Protection | Privacy
For Visitors and Web Beginners
- Page Navigation – where is the Menu?
- Language Selection (English/Deutsch)
- Define Language Preferences in your Browser
- Uniform Date Format
- Click, Tap or Touch?
- Search Function
- Read all on one Page
- Flip through Pages
- Text Highlighting
- Linked Page: where is this going?
- Reading Mode makes reading long Texts easier
- Adjust Font Size using a Key Combination
- Glossary: Technical Terms & Abbreviations A–Z
- Privacy – just for your (Data) Protection
- Optimise Web Browser Settings
- Protection against Phishing
- Spam Filter
- Text auf Deutsch
Here I explain a few essentials to make browsing around and finding interesting articles easier.
At the very top right there is an icon with three horizontal lines one above the other, this is a “Hamburger button”.
After clicking/tapping on it, the Hamburger menu opens.
This type of menu is particularly well suited for small screens, as no precious space is wasted on an elaborate menu. A Hamburger menu is no disadvantage on large screens. Visitors concentrate better on the content of the displayed web page and only deal with the page navigation when it is needed.
Many people now use the internet more often on a small smartphone than at home on a large computer screen.
The Hamburger menu shows both languages top right: English | Deutsch
– the selected language is always on the left side of the vertical bar (now: English) and the second language is always on the right (now: Deutsch) with a link to the homepage. Here on the help page, the link leads to the German help page for demonstration purposes.
Tip: Store your preferred language(s) in your browser!
Many websites use language preferences of their visitors to present themselves in an appropriate language instantly. This website can do that, too.
Every browser offers the possibility to select region and languages under “Settings/Language” (or similar). Take the opportunity to indicate your mother tongue and, depending on your language skills, additional languages!
Not change the region, as this will also change the system language!
This language setting also comes into play if you are urgently looking for something on the Internet: the search engine recognises your language preferences and finds a good search result, even if the information you need is not available in your native language. This is convenient and saves time.
I write the date in a uniform format: DD.MM.YYYY.
This also corresponds to the British spelling in this abbreviated form.
On a Mac or PC with a computer mouse, on a MacBook or notebook with a touchpad, on devices with a touch screen by tapping the menu. In my articles I write “mouse click” instead of constantly mentioning all the possibilities. So please replace “mouse click” in your mind with “tap” if necessary.
By the way, a good touchpad works just as well as a computer mouse.
I have only used notebooks privately for years and always prefer a good touchpad to a mouse. It's just a matter of getting used to it.
General overview of the menu structure, direct selection of every subpage possible. See at the bottom of the website.
In the opened menu you will see the input field for the search at the top. So type in the search term, then click on “Search” to the right of it or tap “Next”, “Search”, “Enter” or “Return” on the screen on your software keyboard (depending on the device).
Attention: Search only possible in the selected language!
I have restructured former multi-page articles (such as this one): all sub-pages have been attached to the respective title page with a jump label.
The table of contents at the top of the page provides a quick overview.
Advantage: if you want to read a particular paragraph quickly, you save time.
You can flip through this website like a book from the start page to the last page if you like.
• left below each page: « previous page
• right below each page: next page »
• far right at the very bottom: ^ (arrow pointing up = top of page)
Underlining is only used for hyperlinks (demonstrated here) to avoid confusion. When touched, their colour changes from black to red. To emphasise text, type is displayed in bold, italics or sometimes in colour to match the content.
At a glance, even before you click, you see where my Hyperlink leads to:
So that you don't “lose” my page, external links (web addresses to external websites) always open in a new window.
Mac, PC, Notebook, iPhone, Smartphone, iPad, Tablet:
As soon as a paper symbol appears at the very top left of the web address or the letter A appears twice in different sizes (example: A A), the reading mode can be used by clicking on this sign and the font size can also be changed.
Works with all versions of Apple's Safari, Google´s Chrome, Mozilla´s Firefox, Opera and Microsoft´s Internet Explorer. Possibly also with others.
On some systems you can also reach the reading mode by clicking on a Double-A in two different sizes (similar to the illustration), then the call for reading mode and font size setting is combined.
Mac/PC/Notebook (replace [Ctrl] with [command] on the Mac):
[Strg] and [+] to enlarge,
[Strg] and [-] to reduce the size.
[Strg] and  resets to default.
Technical terms are used as sparingly as possible here.
However, a technology-heavy website cannot do without it.
Also as a technical challenge, I began years ago to build up my own glossary. In the meantime, this glossary has been filled with many technical terms and explanations and is linked thousands of times.
The aim is to explain every technical term used on this website. Many foreign words not used here are also already explained.
If there is an explanation for a technical term used on this website, it is linked to the Glossary as shown here as an example: browser.
A mouse click is all it takes. You can then return to the previous page via browser navigation by clicking on the arrow pointing to the left.
With the following lines, I would like to stimulate reflection on the protection of your privacy.
For all browsers: update regularly!
To stay safe, use only official websites of the developer/publisher!
Software recommendations from Tests and Tips always link to the publisher.
Avoid Internet Explorer
For security reasons, also avoid its successor named “Edge”!
It is not compatible with some web applications – you can save yourself time on troubleshooting!
By the way: Microsoft Edge, as the successor to Internet Explorer, does not support ActiveX, which means that Microsoft has unofficially announced the end of ActiveX technology.
Microsoft is known for never updating TLS certificates promptly.
The encryption that is temporarily weakend in this way makes the secret services' work immensely easier, as it virtually opens backdoors.
Company bosses should be aware of this and use browsers whose developers update TLS certificates promptly.
If you don't want to do without Internet Explorer because company secrets are not that important to you or your employer forces you to use it:
Set the security settings in Microsoft Internet Explorer to Medium or better High and disable ActiveX!
Then some “playful” websites are no longer usable, but reputable websites with ActiveX can also be individually enabled in the browser.
The extension “NoScript” makes Firefox very secure
(if you use it deliberately)!
Does not use dangerous ActiveX.
Very secure: every website (session) runs in its own sandbox!
Send personal Data only via secure Websites
Transmit confidential data only on websites with transport encryption!
You can recognize active transport encryption by the lock symbol in the address bar of your browser and by the URL displayed therein, which begins with https://.
Look out! The lock symbol says nothing about the seriousness of a web address!
Important: SSL 3.1 = TLS 1.0 is obsolete! Also version 1.1 is weak, already outdated and no longer recommended!
TLS version 1.3 is up to date. TLS Version 1.2 is just about acceptable. Really safe it is with AES-256 and PFS!
Most Internet servers still allow connections with TLS version 1.0 and 1.1 to avoid excluding visitors. Browser and web server always negotiate the most secure connection. Attackers can manipulate this and force the web server to use the least secure method available. The most secure web server is the one that rejects old methods and thus fends off manipulation attempts (good admins always use the latest security standards)!
Look out! Some service providers and shop owners (!) only encrypt the login process and save on transfer encryption because it saves a little bit of computing power. But then the connection is not really secure!
Moreover, this is a violation of the GDPR. It is better to steer clear of such companies, as they may be just as lax in their handling of customer data. A bargain purchase at such a shop can cost you dearly if customer data is stolen there later.
Tip: do the TSL test yourself! Test websites with encryption for their quality!
Criminals try to invite Internet users under flimsy pretexts by e-mail to specially prepared pages where confidential data is retrieved for later misuse.
Ordinary E-Mails are not forgery-proof, so please note
- Your bank will never ask you for access data!
- Deutsche Post DHL will never ask you for Packstation data!
- do not open file attachments of unsolicited e-mails!
- with dubious e-mails always call the sender first and ask!
- Be careful if something is offered "super cheap" or "for free"!
- even if you had taken part in a lottery – the organizer would know your data!
- because you had not ordered any goods, you do not react to alleged "package notifications"!
- Side jobs with fantastic earning opportunities are never serious!
- Caution is always advisable when advance payment is requested!
Note: There is (also on the Web) nothing (valuable) for free!
Delete unsolicited incoming e-mails with unknown sender unread, especially if the subject is not written in your language.
Exception: you often have international correspondence, but then it is much more difficult to recognize the serious mails.
E-Mail Provider or Mail Client
An e-mail box or mail program with a spam filter protects against spam.
A combination of both is much more effective.
Spam senders use special programs (bots, spiders, harvesters) to automatically search the entire World Wide Web for mail addresses.
Attention, Webmaster Fellows!
Your Meta Tags will also be scanned!
Enter a fictitious mailbox in the meta tag and on the page “Contact” as well as the provider identification (“Site Notice”) the real mail address only as graphic with a link to the e-mail form (!). According to the current state of knowledge, robots cannot use this yet.
Or write the e-mail address with spaces and replace @ and the dot with a paraphrase. But then a short explanation for beginners, who do not know the topic yet.
In the past, it helped to enter the email address as a graphic with a link to the email form.
According to the state of knowledge at the time, robots couldn't do anything with that. However, since the Internet mafia even uses cheap labour to recognise captchas and OCR software is now also better and better at recognising texts in graphics, it is urgent to refrain from doing so.
Update: current iPhones can now read almost all texts in photos without error! Hackers like to use smartphones for fully automated searches for web servers with security holes.
This makes it more difficult for spammers to find valid e-mail addresses.